One of my more popular posts has been Philadelphia Marriage Indexes Online. As that post indicates, the FamilySearch site’s collection of Philadelphia Marriage Records is great online tool for searching for marriage information. The collection is a listing of marriage licenses issued in Philadelphia from 1885-1951. While these records are technically an “index” they are not searchable – to find a particular person, you must browse through the records. This is easy for the years 1885 to 1938 because the list is alphabetical. For the remaining years, the last names were entered in the order of application, so it takes some manual searching to find a particular person.
In my previous post, I lauded the availability of these records – not only can we search online, but they are free! But I’ve also come across some comments on mailing lists and message boards from some disappointed individuals who were unable to find their ancestors’ marriage records in this index. When you know a couple lived in the city, and you have an approximation of when they married, why can’t they be found in the index of Philadelphia marriage license records? Simply put, many Philadelphia residents went elsewhere to get married. This occurred mostly due to marriage laws that differed from state to state. These laws that govern how marriages may be entered into and officiated are at the state level, not federal, so the rules vary.
For this reason, some couples married out of state, or at least outside of the borders of the city of Philadelphia. The Pennsylvania rules that they may have been circumventing usually involved age or the waiting period. In the commonwealth of Pennsylvania, a law was passed on October 1, 1885 that required marriage licenses to be obtained prior to a couple marrying. The county clerk of the orphans’ court was required to keep the records. At this time, the information required by the couple was rather simple and included the names of the couple, birth dates and places of birth, occupations and current residences, any previous marriage(s), and if the parties are related or not.
On September 11, 1885, the New York Times printed a short article about the new law that was excerpted from The Philadelphia Times:
Some of the interrogatories will be embarrassing in special cases, but the law is inexorable and they must be answered. The clerk of the court will be liable to fine if he fails to enforce the law to the letter, and parties answering falsely will be subject to the penalty of perjury.
One of the requirements of this new law made the marriageable age 21. For anyone under 21, the consent of the parents was required. Suddenly, an out-of-state marriage market was born!
One of the earliest locations for Philadelphians to marry was one of the closest and easily reached: Camden, New Jersey, located directed across the Delaware River from Philadelphia. By 1888 the newspapers were complaining that Pennsylvania’s marriage license law was creating a “knot-tying business” for “love-sick couples” in Camden, “where impertinent questions are not asked, and where the performance of the marriage ceremony is not hedged about with restrictions.”
By 1891, Camden was called “the Gretna Green of the Union”. Gretna Green was a small town in Scotland known for runaway weddings. A New York Times’ article explains that those “unable or unwilling to procure a license” in Philadelphia simply traveled to Camden for a quick and quiet marriage. The statistics cited in the article show that only 634 marriages were performed in Camden in 1885, the year that Pennsylvania changed their law. By 1890, the entire state of New Jersey had 15,564 marriages with one-third performed in Camden – “although the population of that city is less than one-fifteenth of the population of the State.
My great-grandparents were Philadelphia residents who contributed to the booming marriage trade in Camden. In 1910, Louis Pater celebrated his 17th birthday on August 24th. Three days later, he married Elizabeth Miller. On the marriage certificate, Louis’ age is listed as 22. Elizabeth is listed as 20 although she would only turn 19 in another three months. Elizabeth’s parents were in Poland – she had only immigrated the previous year – but her brother Emil served as a witness. It is assumed that Louis did not think his parents would approve of the marriage at his young age.
Although Ancestry.com has marriage records from “Camden County, NJ, 1837-1910″ it is likely that these are moreso county records than those from the city of Camden. Not only did I not find my great-grandparents’ marriage in this database, but it consists of only 6,000 records. Given the marriage boom in Camden after 1885, it is assumed that the city of Camden’s records are not included here.
The city of Camden’s web page indicates that “Birth, Death, and Marriage Certificates can be aquired (sic) for anyone that was born, died, or married in the City of Camden. These certificates can be picked up in room 103 of City Hall or mailed directly to you.”
Another town famous for out-of-state marriages was Elkton, MD. Located in northern Maryland, the town is situated close to Delaware, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. Until 1938, there was no waiting period required between the marriage application and the ceremony, so the town became known for “quick” weddings similar to Las Vegas decades later. The following sign recognizes Elkton’s role in the history of marriage in the Northeastern US:
I do not have any direct ancestors who got married in Elkton, but I’m sure there are some collateral relatives who did. If you can’t find a marriage record, try Elkton. Records can be searched through the Clerk of the Circuit Court of Cecil County, Maryland. See their site for more information.
Other Pennsylvania Counties
It makes sense to travel across state lines to marry if Pennsylvania had “restrictive” laws regarding the marriageable age and a waiting period. However, there was another option – the couple simply didn’t tell the truth on their applicatoin. But, sometimes they did not want to lie about their ages in the city of Philadelphia. In my own family history, both sets of grandparents got married in Delaware County – despite the fact that it is in Pennsylvania and therefore governed by the same laws as the city of Philadelphia. Perhaps they were afraid that the city could “look it up” and discover their fib? All I know is that both towns are a bit out of the way for me today and I have a car and highways; my grandparents did not.
In the Pater family, history repeated itself with another 17-year-old groom. My grandfather, Henry Pater, was two months shy of his 18th birthday when he traveled to Broomall, PA with his intended, Mae Zawodna. On the license application, Henry lists his birth year as 1907 instead of 1912, therefore making himself almost 23 years old. Mae, who actually was born in 1907 and was five years older than Henry, listed her birth year as 1908 – making herself appear to be 21 rather than 22 and a half. Neither family looked kindly upon the wedding, and in fact in the 1930 census a few months later they are each enumerated with their own parents – living a few doors away from each other. Eventually they told their families they were married, and in June of the same year their marriage was blessed in a Catholic church.
My other grandparents traveled to Media, PA for their wedding in 1934. James Pointkouski accurately reported his age as 23, but Margaret Bergmeister makes herself one year older – reporting her age as 21. In reality, she would turn 21 a few months later. She also provides an address for her parents; however, both had been deceased for some time. They may have feared someone in Philadelphia confirming her birth record, which would have made her ineligible for marriage without the consent of her guardian. But they also did not want to wait an extra few months – their son would be born seven months later.
Couples had many reasons to marry in seemingly unlikely places. If the law required parental consent, a waiting period, or even proof of either a divorce or death of a prior marriage, some couples traveled to avoid the hassle. Or they traveled to the next county to avoid the neighbors seeing the marriage notice published in the newspaper. This was by no means unique to the Philadelphia area – Elkton, MD received couples from up and down the East Coast, and other states have similar “Gretna Green” locations such as the Kentucky and Ohio River Valley border. If you have trouble finding Grampa’s marriage record – look around the neighboring counties or states!